Miloš Stokić Weblog

Engleski jezik

Tabelarni prikaz upotrebe vremena, možete pogledati na sledećim linkovima >>> Primena 1 i Primena 2

 

PRESENT SIMPLE

Present simple koristimo kako bi izrazili naše navike, one radnje koje su deo nas i naše svakodnevnice. Takođe, koristimo kako bi izrazili činjenice koje su uvek tačne.

 

Positive sentences

I drink coffee. We drink coffee
You drink coffee. You drink coffee.
He/ She/ It drinks coffee. They drink coffee.

So, it is obvious that the verb gets suffix –s or –es only in the third person (Glagolu u trećem licu jednine dodaje se nastavak –s ili –es, osim glagola: to be – biti, to have – imati, can, may – moći, must – morati, ought – trebati.).

Napomena: Ovaj nastavak izaziva promenu kod glasa y ukoliko se on nalazi iza suglasnika. Y prelazi u i, (carry->carries). Ukoliko se glas y nalazi iza samoglasnika ne dolazi do promene. (buy->buys).

Primeri:

I get up at 8 o’clock. Cows eat grass.
Maria drinks coffee every morning. Snow falls in the winter.

 

Negative sentences – Odrični oblik

Odrični oblik u Present Simple-u se stvara tako da upotrebimo don’t i glavni glagol u infinitive-u u svim licima množine i u prvom i drugom licu jednine. Dok doesn’t i glavni glagol koristimo samo u trećem licu jednine. Glavni glagol mora biti u infinitivu i ne sme imati nastavak –s ili –es u negativnom izrazu.

Primeri:

Negativna Pozitivna
Marko doesn’t ride a bike. Marko rides a bike.

 

Question – Upitna

U upitnim rečenicama imamo isto pravilo o korišćenju glagola do/does. Does se koristi samo u trećem licu jednine i to tako da zameni mesto sa subjektom i dođe na prvo mesto. Sva druga lica koriste do, a pritom zameni mesto sa subjektom.

Does Marko ride a bike every day?
Do you have this CD?

PRESENT CONTINUOUS

Upotreba: Izražavanje radnje koja se događa u trenutku govora.

They are playing in the garden.
He is drinking coffee at the moment.

Positive sentences

I am drinking coffee. We are drinking coffee.
You are drinking coffee. You are drinking coffee.
He/She/It is drinking coffee. They are drinking coffee.

Trebamo izabrati pravilan izraz prezenta glagola BE (AM/ARE/IS), potom glavnom glagolu dodamo nastavak –ing. Važno je izabrati pravilan oblik glagola BE, za prvo lice jednine koristimo AM, za treće lice jednine koristimo IS, dok za drugo lice jednine i sva lica množine koristimo ARE.

Negative sentence – Odrični oblik

Glagolima AM/ARE/IS dodajemo negativnu reč NOT, s tim da onda imamo i kratke oblike kao što su ‘m not, aren’t, isn’t.

I am not drinking coffee. or I’m not drinking….
You are not drinking coffee. or You aren’t drinking…..
He is not drinking coffee. or He isn’t drinking…..

 

Question – Upitna

Kako bi napravili upitnu rečenicu samo potrebno je zamenti mesta pomoćnog glagola BE i subjekta.

Are you drinking coffee?
Is she drinking coffee?
Are they drinking coffee?

PAST SIMPLE

Past simple izražava radnju koja je počela i završila se u prošlosti.

Emma passed her exam last year. (Ema je prošla ispit prošle godine).

Elvis died in 1977.(Elvis je umro 1977. godine).

Positive form

They arrived at 6 o’ clock. – > regular verb arrive + d = arrived

I had breakfast at six. – > irregular verb have has past form had

Some important irregular verbs:

Base form Past simple
Be was/were
Become Became
do did
Feel felt
Have had
I drove a car. We drove a car.
You drove a car. You drove a car.
He/ She /It drove a car. They drove a car.

 

Subjektu se dodaje glagol u prošlom vremenu čija prošla forma zavisi o tome da li je glagol pravilan ili nepravilan. Stoga, pravilni glagoli dobivaju nastavak –ed ili –d, dok nepravilni glagoli imaju uvek isti izraz/formu koja mora biti naučena iz tablice nepravilnih glagola engleskog jezika. Ispod tablice nalazi se konjugacija nepravilnog glagola drive (drove), iz koje je vidljivo da glagol u rečenicama koje su u past simple-u ne menja oblik kroz lica nego uvek ostaje isti. Ovo pravilo važi i za sve pravilne glagole.

Negative form and question:

in negatives and questions we use did
1. negative sentences:
Negative form is did not or didn’t:

The car didn’t stop at the crossing. – >this is a negative sentence, while positive one is:
The car stopped at the crossing.

Thus, it is obvious that in a negative sentence the full verb has to go back to the infinitive.
didn’t + stop… is correct
didn’t + stop… is incorrect

For example:
I posted the letter yesterday. // I didn’t post the letter yesterday.
I eatpizza last night. // I didn’t eat pizza last night.

Dakle, jasno je iz gore navedenog kako (negative sentences) u engleskom jeziku stvorimo uz pomoć glagola did koji poprima oblik did not ili didn’t. Ovde je važno napomenuti kako nakon upotrebe glagola didn’t moramo glavni glagol vratiti natrag u infinitiv.

Questions:

When forming questions we also use did, but now, in questions, subject and verb did are changing places.

James unlocked the doors. ——-> Did James unlock the doors?
Jenny wrote a letter yesterday. ——> Did Jenny write a letter yesterday?

So, once again when we make a question and when we use did our full verb has to go back to infinitive.

BUT: Marta rang me yesterday. —–> Who rang you yesterday?
When we have WHO question word than we do not use the verb did, and the full verb stays in the past simple form.

Valja zapamtiti da pri kreiranju upitnih rečenica u past simple-u koristimo glagol did koji pritom zameni mesto sa subjektom, tj. ide na prvo mesto u rečenici. Nakon što smo upotrebili glagol did, glavni glagol u rečenici vraća se natrag u infinitiv. Izuzetak je pitanje koje počinje zamenicom WHO kada ne upotrebljavamo glagol did nego samo koristimo glavni glagol u past simple-u.

PAST CONTINUOUS

Use:
It was raining at three o’ clock.

This sentence means that at three o’ clock we were in the middle of a period of rain. The rain began before three o’clock and stopped some time after three. So, we are stressing the length of time.

Soft music was playing.

This sentence means that we heard the music at that particular moment, but it was playing before we heard it and it stopped some time after we heard it.

Prva rečenica It was raining at three o’ clock. (Padala je kiša u tri sata), označava trenutak u prošlosti kada smo mi svedočili kiši, ali upotreba glagola was raining označava da je počelo kišiti pre nego smo mi videli i da je ta kiša prestala u nekom trenutku nakon što smo mi videli.

Upotrebom past continuous naglašavamo trajanje radnje u prošlosti.

Isto vredi i za drugu rečenicu gde smo mi u jednom trenutku čuli kako svira nežna muzika, ali glagoli was playing naglašavaju kako je muzika svirala i pre nego što smo je mi čuli i kako je svirala i nakon što smo je mi čuli.

Form:
The past continuous is formed of the past tense of be (was/were) and an –ing form.

Positive sentences:

Mary was playing the piano.
Mary is the third person singular noun, so we use was form of the verb be, and verb play is accompanied with the – ing form.
They were skiing in Switzerland.
They is the third person plural pronoun, so we use were form of the verb be, and the verb ski is accompanied with the –ing form.

I was running. We were running.
You were running. You were running.
He/ She / It was running. They were running.

U Past Continuous-u koristimo was/were (tj. prošli oblik glagola be, vidi tablicu 1.) i glavni glagol kojem se dodaje nastavak –ing. Jasno je iz prethodne konjugacije kako u prvom i trećem licu jednine koristimo WAS, dok sva ostala lica koriste oblik WERE.

Negative sentences:

to form a negative sentence we use was/were + not

so we have: was not or wasn’t and were not or weren’t

Mary wasn’t playing the piano.

They weren’t skiing in Switzerland.

Pomoćnom glagolu was/were dodajemo not dok sve ostalo ostaje isto. Ipak, važno je paziti na to u kojem se licu nalazi subjekt kako bismo upotrebili pravilan oblik pomoćnog glagola.

Question:

To form a question in the past continuous, our verb was/were changes place with the subject:

Was Mary playing the piano?

U upitnoj rečenici kod Past Continuous-a pomoćni glagol was/were i subjekt zamene mesta.

PAST SIMPLE OR PAST CONTINUOUS

Past simple izražava radnju koja je kraće trajala koja je prekinula dužu radnju koju izražavamo past contionuous-om. Jednostavnije rečeno ako imamo situaciju u kojoj jedna radnja prekida trajanje druge radnje u prošlosti, onda onu radnju koja prekida označavamo past simplom, a onu koja je prekinuta past continuousom.

Na primer:

When/he/carry/ a suitcase/ he /drop/it/ on his foot.

Trebamo shvatiti tj. proceniti koja je radnja trajala duže a koja kraće. Dakle, on je nosio torbu koju je ispustio na svoju nogu. Jasno je iz konteksta da je nošenje torbe radnja koja je trajala duže, dok je ispuštanje torbe radnja koja je trajala kraće. Stoga ćemo nošenje torbe izraziti past continuousom, a ispuštanje torbe past simplom.

Naposletku, nakon što smo sve pravilno i logički razmotrili pišemo rečenicu ovako:

When he was carrying a suitcase, he dropped it on his foot.

BROJEVI

Brojevi mogu biti: glavni (cardinals, redni (ordinals), deobni (fractional numerals), brojevi za ponavljanje (repeating numerals), brojevi za umnožavanje (multiplicatives).

1 one, 2 two, 3 three, 4 four, 5 five, 6 six, 7 seven, 8 eight, 9 nine, 10 ten, 11 eleven, 12 twelve, 13 thirteen, 14 fourteen, 15 fifteen, 16 sixteen, 17 seventeen, 18 eighteen, 19 nineteen, 20 twenty, 21 twenty one, 22 twenty two, 30 thirty, 40 fourty, 50 fifty, 60 sixty,70 seventy, 80 eighty, 90 ninety, 100 a hundred, 101 a hundred and one, 200 two hundred, 1000 a thousand, 2000 two thousand, 1.000.000 a million, 2.000.000 two million

Redni brojevi
Prva tri redna broja se pišu nepravilno: first (prvi), second (drugi) i third (treći). Svi ostali redni brojevi prave se dodavanjem nastavka „th“ na glavne brojeve: seventh (sedmi), tenth (deseti), sixteenth (šesnaesti), ninetieth (devedeseti), thousandth (hiljaditi)…

Slova „ve“ kod five postaju slovo „f“ kod fifth (peti), fifteenth (petnaesti) i fiftieth (pedeseti). Isto tako kod twelve se menja u twelfth. Nine u rednom broju gubi krajnje „-e„: nine – ninth.

Kod desetica krajnje „y“ mijenja se u „ie“ pred nastavkom „th“: thirtieth (trideseti). Kod sastavljenih reči nastavak dobijaju samo jedinice: twenty-fourth (dvadeset četvrti).

Redni brojevi se upotrebljavaju umesto glavnih za označavanje:
datuma meseca: the nineteenth of May (devetnaesti Maj); rodoslovlje vladara: Henry the Sixth (Henry VI), poglavlja u knjizi: chapter the tenth (glava deseta); posle reči every, kao što su izrazi: every third day (svakog trećeg dana).

Razlomci u nazivniku imaju redni broj: 4/5 – four fifths, 3/10 – three tenths. Razlika je jedino kod 1/2 – one half i 1/4 – one quarter ili a quarter, 3/4 – three quarters.

Redni brojevi dobijaju određeni član the. the first class (prvi razred).

Brojevi za ponavljanje

Brojevi za ponavljanje prave se pomoću reči „times“: four times (četiri puta), twenty times (dvadeset puta). Izuzetak: once (jedanput), twice (dva puta), thrice (tri puta) zadržali su se još u poeziji, inače su zastareli.

Brojevi za umnožavanje

Brojevi za umnožavanje prave se dodavanjem nastavka „fold“ na glavne brojeve: fourfold (četverostruk). Izuzetak je broj „twofold“ koji se može izraziti još rečju double (dvostruk).

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